Cover Image

Co-creation of Alternative Futures Using Technologies of Geoinformation Structured in a Geodesign Method: Contributions to the State-of-the-Art

Emil Lanfranchi, Francesco Fonzino


Although community engagement is increasingly supported by the evolution of technologies which are becoming more accessible to a larger number of people, democratised planning practices are yet struggling to emerge and be included in common practices. Future approaches urgently need to be based on innovative and comprehensive action-oriented processes. The paper is a literature review that synthesises and gathers the bulk of the turning points which led to radical paradigm shifts for planners and designers. It illustrates various approaches based on technologies of geoinformation and web-based tools such as Geodesign, that can give support to opinion and decision-making processes of co-creation and co-design of alternative futures, while highlights potentials and critics, pushing towards more democratized practices in the real-world projects.


Co-creation; Geodesign; Collaborative Decision-making processes.

Full Text:



Andrienko, G., Andrienko, N., Jankowski, P., Keim, D., Kraak, M. J., MacEachren, A. & Wrobel, S. (2007). Geovisual analytics for spatial decision support: setting research agenda. International Journal of Geographic Information Science, 21(8), 839-857.

Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A Ladder of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Planning Association (JAIP), 35(4), 216-224.

Batty, M. (2008). Planning support systems for cities and regions. Cambridge: Lincoln Institute.

Borges, J., Jankowski, P., & Davis, C.A. (2015). Crowdsourcing for Geodesign: Opportunities and Challenges for Stakeholder Input in Urban Planning. In Robbi Sluter, C., Madureira Cruz, C., & Leal de Menezes, P. (Eds.), Cartography - Maps Connecting the World (pp. 361-373). Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Springer, Cham.

Bugs, G., Granell, C., Fonts, O., Huerta, J., & Painho, M. (2010). An assessment of Public Participation GIS and Web 2.0. Technology planning practice in Canela, Brazil. Cities, 27(1), 172-181.

Campagna, M. (2014). Geodesign from Theory to Practice: From Metaplanning to 2nd Generation of Planning Support Systems. [Special Issue]. Tema Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, 211-221. DOI: 10.6092/1970-9870/2516

Campagna, M., Steinitz, C., Di Cesare, E. A., Cocco, C., Ballal, H. & Canfield, T. (2016a). Collaboration in planning: the Geodesign approach. Regional Development and Regional Policy (Polish Journal), Poznan Conference, 35(1), 27-43.

Campagna, M. (2016b). From Metaplanning to PSS 2.0: Exploring the architecture of Geodesign as a process. Research In Urbanism Series, 4(1), 57-70.

Carr, C. T., & Hayes, R. A. (2015). Social media: Defining, developing, and divining. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 23(1), 46-65.

Chrisman N. R. (2002). Exploring geographic information systems. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2nd Edition.

Cogan, A., & Sharpe, S., (1986). Planning Analysis: The Theory of Citizen Involvement. Retrieved June 15, 2017, from

Craig, W.J. (1998). The Internet Aids Community Participation in the Planning Process. In Proceedings of the COST-UCE C4 International Workshop on Groupware for Urban Planning, (vol 22(4), pp. 393-404). Lyon, February 4-6, 1998. Edited by R. Laurini, pp. 10.1-11.10. Republished in Computer, Environment and Urban Systems.

Dangermond, J. (2010). GeoDesign and GIS – Designing our Futures. In Buhmann, E., Pietsch, M. & E. Kretzler (Eds.): Peer Reviewed Proceedings Digital Landscape Architecture 2010, Anhalt University of Applied Sciences. Berlin/Offenbach: Wichmann, 502-514.

Farinelli, F. (2003). Geografia. Un’introduzione ai modelli del mondo. Turni: Einaudi.

Foucault, M., & Gordon, C. (1980). Power/Knowledge: selected interviews and other writings 1972-1977, p. 152. Brighton: Harvester Press.

Goodchild, M. F. (2000). Cartographic Features On A Digital Earth. Cartographic Perspectives, 36(1), 3-12.

Goodchild, M.F. & Glennon, J. A. (2010). Crowdsourcing geographic information for disaster response: a research frontier. International Journal of Digital Earth, 3(3), 231-241.

Hanzl, M. (2007). Information technology as a tool for public participation in urban planning: a review of experiments and potentials. Design Studies, 28(3), 213-340.

Healey, P. (1998). Building institutional capacity through collaborative approaches to urban planning. Environment and Planning A, 30(9), 1531-1546.

Howard, P. N., & Parks, M. R. (2012). Social Media and Political Change: Capacity, Constraint, and Consequence. Journal of Communication, 62(2), 359-362.

Innes, J.E., & Booher, D.E. (2004). Reframing Public Participation: Strategies for the 21st Century. Planning Theory & Practices, 5(4), 419-436.

Kent, M.L. (2010). Directions in Social Media for Professionals and Scholars. In Heath, R.L. (Ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Public Relations, Second Edition (pp. 643-656). Thousand Oaks, C.A.: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Kent, M.L., & Taylor, M. (2014). Social Media in Public Relations: Reflections on Extending and Narrowing Relationships. In Proceeding of the7th International Forum on Public Relations and Advertising, Bangkok, (pp. 11-18).

Kingston, R. (1998). Web Based GIS for Public Participation Decision Making in the UK. In Craig, W., Harris, T., & Weiner, D. (Eds.), Empowerment, Marginalisation, and Public Participation GIS: Proceeding of the Varenius Workshop, (pp. 49-50). Santa Barbara, Ca:

Kingston, R. (2002). The role of e-government and public participation in planning process. XVI Aesop Congress Volos, 1(1), 1-14.

Kubicek, H. (2010). The potential of E-Participation in Urban Planning: A European Perspective. In: Silva, C. N. (Ed.), Handbook of Research on E-Planning: ICTs for Urban Development and Monitoring. New York: IGI Global, 168-194.

Kweit, M.G., & Kweit. R.W. (1984). The politics of policy analysis: The role of citizen participation in analytic decision making. Review of Policy Studies, 3(2), 234-245.

Lang, R. (1986). Planning Analysis: The theory of Citizen Participation. University of Oregon.

Linders, D. (2012). From e-government to we-government: Defining a typology for citizen coproduction in the age of social media. Government Information Quarterly, 29(4), 446–454.

Liu X., Wang, X., Wright, G., Cheng, J., Li, X., & Liu, R. (2017). A State-of-the-Art Review on the Integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Geographic Information System (GIS). ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 6(2), 53.

Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

MacEachren A. M., Gahegan, M., Hardisty, F., Pike, W., Brewer, I., & Cai, G. (2004). Geovisualization for knowledge construction and decision suppconort. IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, 24(1), 13-17.

Martin, P., Tarr, S., & Lockie, S. (1992). Participatory environmental management in New South Wales: policy and practice. In Lawrence, G., Vanclay, F., & Furze, B. (Eds.), Agriculture, Environment and Society: Contemporary Issues for Australia. Melbourne: MacMillan, 184-207.

McCormick, B. H., DeFanti, T. A., & Brown, M. D. (1987). Visualization in Scientific Computing. Computer Graphics, 21(6), 1-14.

Miller, G.A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81-97.

Miller, W. R. (2012). Introducing Geodesign: the concept, Redlands, C.A.: Esri Press.

Moser, C.O. (1993). Gender Planning and Development: Theory, Practice and Training. London; New York: Routledge.

Moura, A.C. M. (2015). Geodesign in Parametric Modelling of urban landscape. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 42(4), 323-332.

Nyerges, T., Ballal, H., Steinitz, C., Canfield, T., Roderick, M., Ritzman, J., & Thanatemaneerat, W. (2016). Geodesign dynamics for sustainable urban watershed development. Sustainable Cities and Society, 25(1), 13-24.

Pateman, C. (1970). Participation and democratic theory. Cambridge (England): Cambridge University Press.

Pickles, J. (1995). Ground Truth: the social implications of geographical information systems. London: Guilford Press.

Pratchett, L. (Ed.). (2006). In Proceedings of CAHDE ‘06: Understanding e-democracy developments in Europe. Scoping Paper. In Ad hoc Committee one-democracy, Strasburg, 18-19.

Rivero, R., Smith, A., Ballal, H., & Steinitz, C. (2015). Promoting collaborative Geodesign in a multidisciplinary and multiscale environment: Coastal Georgia 2050, USA. Digital Landscape Architecture, 1(1), 42-58.

Sameh, H. M. M. (2011). Public Participation in Urban Development Process through Information and Communication Technologies. Master thesis dissertation, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

Sanoff, H. (2000). Community participation methods in design and planning. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Sharp, R. (1992). Organizing for change: People-power and the role of institutions. In J. Holmberg (Ed.), Making development sustainable: redefining institutions, policy, and economics. Washington D.C.: Island Press, 39-64.

Schuler, D. (1996). New Community Networks: Wired for Change. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc.

Steinitz, C. (1995). A Framework for Landscape Planning Practice and Education. Process Architecture, 127.

Steinitz, C. (2012). A Framework for Geodesign. Changing Geography by Design. Redlands, C.A.: Esri Press.

University of Maryland Libraries (2012). Introduction to GIS, Using ArcGis Desktop 10. U.S. Government Information, Maps & GIS Services. Retrieved April 15, 2017, from

Weidemann, I., & Femers, S. (1993). Public participation in waste management decision-making: analysis and management of conflicts. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 33(3), 355–368.

Wang, H., Song, Y., Hamilton, A., & Curwell, S. (2007). Urban Information integration for advanced e-Planning in Europe. Government Information Quarterly, 24(4), 736-754.

Wates, N. (1998). Involving local communities in urban design: promoting good practice. Urban Design Quarterly, 67(1), 16-37.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Emil Lanfranchi, Francesco Fonzino

ISSN 1828 5961
Registration at L'Aquila Law Court no 3/15 on 29th June, 2015.
All papers are subjected to double blind peer review system by qualified reviewers.

Journal founded by Prof. Roberto Mingucci